We hope you enjoy this edition of E-Learning Exchange, OLE Nepal's quarterly email newsletter. It provides current news and information about the organization and its activities and will keep you up to date with OLE Nepal's work to provide high quality education for children in Nepal.

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ई- पाटीले ल्याइदियो शिक्षामा परिवर्तन

-राधा देवी शर्मा
गणेश मा.वि, बागलुङ

व्याख्यान विधि प्र‌‌योग गरी शिक्षण गर्ने गर्थ्यौँ,
पाठ्यपुस्तकमा नै हामी भर पर्ने गर्थ्यौँ
प्र‌‌योगात्मक विधि भन्ने थाहा थिएन
कस्तो कम्पुटर ल्यापटप त लाग्थ्यो पराई जस्तो।

वर्तमानमा आइयो प्राविधिक युग
अनिवार्य हुन थाल्यो कम्प्युटरको जग
घोकाउने प्र‌‌वृत्तिको अन्धकार थियो
साझा शिक्षा ई-पाटीले नयाँ रुप दियो।

लठ्ठीको सहयोगबाट डराइ घोक्ने बालक
देश हाँक्ने कर्णधार हुन् भोलिका चालक
तर अहिले पढ्न पाए रुचि सहित
ई-पाटीलाई प्रत्येकले राखिकन काखमा।

ई-पाटीले सिकाउँछ प्रयोग गरी हर्ने,
शिक्षण सिकाइ प्रक्रियामा नयाँ कोल्टो फेर्ने,
सहजकर्ताको भूमिका खेलौँ शिक्षक अब
शिक्षामा परिवतर्न आउछकि न तब।

धन्यवाद साझा शिक्षा ई-पाटीलाई दिऊँ
एकिकृत शिक्षण प्रयोग गर्ने अठोट लिऊँ
तालिमको सही रुपमा सदुपयोग गरौँ
प्रयोगात्मक शिक्षण गर्न सबै अघि सरौँ।

Expanding Access through Free and Open Digital Library

OLE Nepal started the open digital library initiative in 2008 with the aim to provide free and easy access to books, documents, interactive learning materials, educational videos, and reference materials to learners of all age and backgrounds. As the use of digital devices was proliferating across the country thanks to lowering cost and increasing availability, we at OLE Nepal felt that a repository of digital content with a special focus on education would be of great value to students, teachers and school communities.

Screenshot of E-Pustakalaya homepage
Access to a wide range of quality educational materials is one of the key components in ensuring quality education in schools, and OLE Nepal’s open digital library - the E-Pustakalaya - does just that. The user-friendly E-Pustakalaya boasts a collection of over 5,500 titles in literature, arts, course materials, teaching materials, newspapers and magazines, reference materials and other educational materials. In addition to the digital books, users can freely access audio books, learning videos and games, wikipedia and maps. All free of cost.

Such free access to reading materials, combined with teacher training and support, has helped establish reading habits in children from early grades. The wide selection of reference materials also promotes a teaching-learning culture that is based on research and independent inquiry. These two components are critical in ensuring quality education in our schools.

The expansion of the E-Pustakalaya has been taking place in two levels. One is the expansion of the repository itself, while the second is the expansion of its coverage across the country. Both of them have their own sets of challenges. Increasing the content in the E-Pustakalaya entails convincing writers, creators, publishers to allow us to add their materials, since it is important for us not to breach copyright of books and materials. We hold meetings with local writers and authors in various cities, and present them the mission and goals of the E-Pustakalaya, and ask their permission to upload their books. Since there is a dearth of books for early readers in Nepali, we have also been holding writers’ workshops in different cities to create read aloud books.

We are also working tirelessly to take the E-Pustakalaya to far-flung schools and communities. Although the E-Pustakalaya can be accessed freely on the web (www.pustakalaya.org), many schools are years away from getting a reliable Internet connectivity. Hence, our team has been loading the entire digital library in low-power devices and installing them in remote schools around the country. With a small one-time investment, these schools have unlimited and easy access to all the learning materials mentioned above. All free of cost.

As computers and other devices are being introduced in more and more schools each year, the demand for locally-installed open digital library is on the rise. We know that OLE Nepal alone will not be able to install the digital library in all the schools; hence, we seek to partner with local organizations as well as the Department of Education to expand the E-Pustakalaya in the maximum number of schools.

OLE Nepal is forever grateful to our E-Pustakalaya advisors for their support and guidance; to our major supporters the Nepal Library Foundation and
the Maitri Trust; and to the hundreds of writers, authors, creators and publishers who have made it possible for us to bring their works to eager learners in different corners in the country and around the world.

E-Pustakalaya in schools

Our technical team has been busy travelling around the country installing the E-Pustakalaya servers, from far-off schools in Bajura to relatively closer ones in Gorkha.

The following tables shows the number of schools with the E-Pustakalaya in different districts.

DistrictSchool DistrictSchool
Baglung7 Kaski1
Bajhang10 Kavre14
Bajura4 Lalitpur6
Banke4 Makwanpur5
Bara6 Mustang7
Chitwan13 Nuwakot2
Dadeldhura5 Panchthar1
Dang2 Parbat3
Dhading1 Rukum1
Dhanusa1 Rupandehi1
Doti7 Sindhupalchowk1
Gorkha17 Solukhumbu6
Gulmi8 Syangja1
Kapilvastu3 Tanahun1
Kathmandu 5
Total : 143

Please visit this link to view the coverage map.

E-Pustakalaya in New Schools


Teachers at E-Pustakalaya orientation
At the request of four schools in the remote far-western Bajura district, OLE Nepal’s team travelled to Jugada VDC to install the E-Pustakalaya servers and set up the local network in each school, followed by orientation and hands-on training to teachers on the use and integration of the digital library. It took the team two full days just to get to the district headquarter, Martadi, travelling on a precarious hilly highway that passed through slopes and crossed rivers without bridges. From Martadi, the team walked to the schools to carry out the installation and orientation. An interaction program was also held in Martadi with local VDC office staff, community members and head-teachers from all the schools.


OLE Nepal, in partnership with the Gorkha Foundation, had installed the E-Pustakalaya servers in ten schools in Gorkha in September and October of 2013, with support from the Maitri Trust. In June 2014, a team of four OLE Nepal staff visited the schools to provide follow-up technical support and to update the content in the E-Pustakalaya servers. The team also installed offline servers in six additional schools in the district. The team was accompanied by Chairman of the Gorkha Foundation, Mr. Ganesh Shrestha.

The monsoon rain added extra challenge to the team as the roads turned muddy and slippery. At few places, the landslides had made it difficult for the vehicle to pass. The team was racing against time to reach the schools before they closed for the summer break. Despite all the obstacles, the team successfully updated the servers in ten schools and installed new servers in six schools.

The list of six schools where the E-Pustakalaya servers were installed:

Annapurna School, Khoplang
Champawati School, Nibase
Jana Jyoti, Chipleti
Janata Ma.Vi, Aap pipal
Mahendra lila School, Harmi
Rajgare School, Gaikhur


Trinity Co-Ed School, Bansbari
Request for the E-Pustakalaya server has started to come from urban private schools as well. Trinity Co-Ed School in Bansbari, Kathmandu, had introduced digital devices at the beginning of the current academic year with the aim to promote a child-friendly teaching-learning approach. Since the school needed educational content for the device, OLE Nepal's team installed the E-Pustakalaya server, so that students and teacher can easily access the digital content to enhance teaching-learning.

New in the E-Pustakalaya

Audible textbooks
This year a total of 645 new titles have been added to the E-Pustakalaya in different categories. Also added are a set of grades one to five English “Audible Textbooks”, where users can click on the text and listen to the corresponding audio recordings. OLE Nepal’s technical team used the the audio recordings prepared by the Rato Bangala Foundation and interlaced them with the text in the digital format (PDF) of the textbooks to create the audible books. The audible books have been widely popular among students and teachers, especially in schools struggling with the lack of qualified English teachers.

The offline edition of the E-Pustakalaya now includes the newly added wikipedia and openstreetmap. (They do not appear on the online edition since users can easily access them directly on the Internet). Unlike previously installed school wikipedia, the current offline wikipedia is very similar to the online wikipedia; it has many more articles, and it is searchable.

The other attractive feature of the latest offline E-Pustakalaya is the openstreetmap. Previously, the E-Pustakalaya contained static maps of the world, of different continents and of Nepal. But with the openstreetmap, users can check any part of the globe, and zoom in and out to see the places in different scales.

The top ten most downloaded books from the online E-Pustakalaya in the last six months are given below (This does not include the downloads from the more than 140 offline servers in schools):

Titles Author Files Download
Stories from Panchatantra [Sanskrit-English] Panchatantra 36982
Nepali Brihad Shabdkosh (Seventh Edition) Nepal Academy 27132
English Series 6 : Reading IV [SLC Support Materials 2068] NCED 24088
Little House on the Prairie Laura Ingalls Wilder 13510
Functions of Organs of Speech NCED 10920
Vidura Niti [Sanskrit-English] (Translated by) MK Ganguli 10647
English Series 5 : Reading III [SLC Support Materials 2068] NCED 10205
Little Brother Cory Doctorow 8747
CK-12 Biology Teacher's Edition Jean Brainard and Douglas Wilkin 7515
Pirate Cinema Cory Doctorow 6444

User Feedback

सूचना र प्रविधिको प्रयोग गर्दै शैक्षिक गुणस्तरमा सुधार ल्याउने अभियानमा ई-पुस्तकालयको विकासले एउटा असाध्यै राम्रो शुरुवात भएको छ। म यस अभियानको सफलताको शुभकामना पनि व्यक्त गर्दछु। प्रा.वि. तहको वालगीतहरूलाई म्यूजिक सहित अपलोड गर्दिनु भए हामी असाध्यै आभारी हुने थियौ ।

-कृष्ण भुजेल
शै. ता.के.धनुषा

The development of the E-Pustakalaya has helped improve the quality of education through ICT. I wish you all the best in the success of this program. It would be wonderful if you could add children’s songs for the primary level in the E-Pustakalaya.

-Krishna Bhujel
Educational Training Center, Dhanusa

Creating Children’s books:
Writers’ Workshops in Pokhara & Biratnagar

Story Presentation by participant
Review of poem by Dr. Bandhu
Since there is a shortage of children’s books in the Nepali language, OLE Nepal has been working with authors to create books suitable for early readers. Recently, two such workshops were organized in Pokhara (June 13 - 14) and Biratnagar (June 28 -29).These workshops were facilitated by experienced children’s literary figures, and the created stories will be illustrated, edited and later uploaded on the E-Pustakalaya for free viewing and downloading.

Workshop at Biratnagar
A total of nineteen local writers attended the workshop in Pokhara, and twenty-four writers were present in the Biratnagar workshop. Renowned linguists Prof. Dr. Chudamani Bandhu, Dr. Dhruva Ghimire and Prof. Dr. Kapil Lamichhane facilitated the event, and emphasized the need of reading materials in order to develop the reading culture in Nepal. They discussed the philosophy behind children’s story writing and its multiple dimensions, and the key elements and techniques for children’s picture book writing. Dr. Bandhu and Dr. Ghimire are also on the E-Pustakalaya’s advisory panel.

Madhu Rai, founder of Sarita Indra Pre-Primary Teaching School, and a workshop participant in Biratnagar mentioned the workshop in her article about children’s stories titled ‘Balkhatha Ra Balbalika’ that appeared on the Kantipur daily on July 14, 2014.

E-Pustakalaya Demonstration & Interaction Program

Interaction Program in Biratnagar
The E-Pustakalaya demonstration and interaction programs were also organized in Pokhara and Biratnagar to share the mission and benefits of the digital library with local writers , readers, educators, librarians, journalists and students. The events also allowed OLE Nepal to connect with writers from the area, and seek permission to add their literary works to the E-Pustakalaya collection.

Interaction Program in Pokhara
In Pokhara, the program was held in two locations, the RC Complex in Lamachaur on June 12, and the American Corner in Mahendra Pul June 14, and was attended by a total of seventy participants.
Interaction Program at American Corner in Pokhara

In Biratnagar, the program was held in Kanchenjunga Seminar Hall on June 27, and was coordinated by Vani Prakashan. The chief guest, Prof. Bal Krishna Pokhrel, pointed out the importance of digital teaching and learning material in today's digitized world. The sixty attendees at the program also saw a demonstration of the E-Pustakalaya.

Laptop programs

OLE Nepal continues to bring quality education in some of the most remote areas through the use of durable children’s laptops (XO), and combining them with local digital content, teacher training and school support. The latest deployment in ten schools in Bajhang with the XO-4 laptops powered by solar energy was carried out successfully.

With additional assistance from the four volunteers who spent 10 weeks at the schools, the students have taken up well to the fun and engaging tools available to them. The two quotes below (in boxes) summarize the status of the program in the schools.

We have plans to add thirteen more schools in Bajhang this year in continued partnership with UN World Food Programme. School survey and selection will begin in July, and the laptop orders are being placed. We’d like to thank all the individuals and organizations who have contributed towards the laptops.
Special thanks to India Development Relief Fund (IDRF) from Maryland, USA, Goshen community, Indiana, USA, Jyoti Group, Nepal for the generous contributions for the laptops. For full list of contributors, please visit www.olenepal.org/donate-bajhang/.

“The process of teaching-learning has become attractive”

- Dhan Bahadur Malla,
Science teacher, Tyadi Primary School, Bajhang

“I found children not only excited but also working independently
when they studied from the laptops.”

- Hikmat Bahadur Singh,
Acting Chief, Bajhang District Education Officer

What’s happening in schools

In-school training, Bajhang

Students learning using laptops at Aishworya Primary School
A team of four trainers and two technical interns traveled to ten program schools Bajhang in May to conduct on-site training for teachers and provide technical support. The in-school training was a follow up of the initial training provided to all teachers from the schools at the launch of the laptop program earlier this year in January. The trainers observed laptop-integrated classes conducted by trained teachers, and provided feedback on the lesson plans, classroom delivery, student management, and other aspects. The trainers and teachers also discussed various challenges that the teachers faced in this new method of teaching-learning.

Mr. Hikmat Bahadur Singh with OLE Trainers at DeepJyoti Primary School
Acting Chief, Mr. Hikmat Bahadur Singh, and School Supervisor, Mr. Surendra Kathayat from Bajhang District Education Office, accompanied the OLE Nepal trainers on the school visits, where they observed classes and took part in the discussions with teachers and parents.
Mr. Surendra Kathayat observing class at Manakamana Primary School

Children in the schools seemed very confident in using the laptops, doing the digital activities, and accessing the materials in the digital library. They were enthusiastic and eager during the laptop-integrated classes. The team also held meetings with parents in all the schools, where they underlined the importance of their support in the long term success and sustainability of the program.

Students learning using laptops at Kalika Primary School

The technical team updated the servers in all ten schools with the latest offline E-Pustakalaya, and updated all 251 laptops with the latest image.

A baseline assessment survey was also conducted at the schools to determine the current level in math, science and English subjects. A random sample of fifteen students were taken from each class, and divided into three groups of five for each of the subjects.The assessment result will be used in future to track the progress of the students.

School support visit, Doti

Students at Hanuman Primary School
OLE Nepal’s monitoring and technical staff visited four schools in Ladagada and Pokhari VDC in Doti where laptop programs have been running with support from Good Neighbors International (GNI). The visit was planned in early May, just as the schools had started the new academic year. The team observed teachers conducting laptop-integrated classes and were provided feedback on their performance. Teachers seemed to have acquired the necessary skills to carry the program forward in future.

Teachers from Hanuman Primary School in Timor Daha were provided refresher training as the program at this school was launched just last year, more than a year after the other three schools. In addition to observing their classes, at the request of the teachers, OLE Nepal’s trainer conducted a demo class using laptops and E-Paath activities.

Students at Mastamandu Primary School
Community Interaction Program at Masteshwor Primary School
Laptop Integrated Class at Sunadevi Primary School

School support visit, Dadeldhura

Students at Janta Primary School in Koral
In April, the monitoring and technical team visited three schools in Dadeldhura where OLE Nepal had introduced the OLPC project in partnership with the UN World Food Program. Two of the schools - Janta Primary School in Koral and Janajyoti Primary School in Hamtad - have been running the program since 2009, while Selaling Primary School in Selaling have been doing the same since 2011.

The visiting team worked with the teachers in planning the continued use of the laptops in the new academic year. They also provided the schools with new power adapters for the laptops and routers since few of the older ones had stopped working. Few broken laptops were also repaired by the technical staff during the visit. They also updated the school server with the latest content, and extended the network to new buildings in the schools.

Students with laptops at Selaling Primary School
Community interaction programs were held in all three schools with parents, and the SMC and PTA members.Mr. Rabindra Chand from WFP Dadeldhura Sub-office and Food For Education staff from Dadeldhura accompanied the OLE Nepal team during the visit to Selaling Primary School.

It was very reassuring to see that these schools have been using the laptop-based approach in daily classroom practices well into the sixth and fourth year of project implementation. The teachers have done so with minimal involvement from OLE Nepal staff, but through their own motivation and monitoring provided by WFP Dadeldhura sub-office.

“Children have developed reading habits and they read a lot.”

Jeet Bahadur Mahara, the principal of Selaling Primary School,
pointing towards fifth graders who were reading books on the E-Pustakalaya.

Turtle Art Day

Walter Bender with Nepali students
OLE Nepal helped organize a two-day “Turtle Art Day 2014” in Kathmandu on May 9 - 10. The program was held at Nepal Administrative Staff College, and was attended by more than 70 children from four schools in Lalitpur. The participating schools were Navajyoti Lower Secondary School, Siddheshwar Lower Secondary School, Chandi Devi Primary School, and Bloom Nepal School.

Turtle Art Day program has already taken place in some other countries in the past few months, and is led by none other than the founder of Sugar Labs, Walter Bender, who has also served as President of OLPC for software and content.

Children getting started
Walter was helped by a group of enthusiastic Sugar and OLPC enthusiasts from different countries including Bernie Innocenti (Italy), Adam Holt (USA), Nick Dorian (USA), Martin Dluhos (Czech Republic), and mentors from OLE Nepal, Subir Pradhanang, Basanta Shrestha, Sumit Acharya, and Bibek Maharjan.

It was a completely hands-on workshop with each student working on his/her own XO laptop to try out Turtle Art (Blocks) activity. On the first day, the students were introduced to the basic concept of Turtle Blocks, moving the turtle using various commands, and adding interesting features. It was followed by making different shapes such as square, triangle, and lots of other interesting patterns that they could try out with on the second day. There was also a special break-out session for robotics with Butia done by Walter, which seemed to attract the interest of many of the students. At the end of the second day, children exhibited their projects, and the best ones received cool gifts.

Robotics with Butia
Lunch Time
Children displaying their works

Tech Corner

XO Visualization Tool

Martin Dluhos has completed a working software module to track the usage of XO laptops in schools during the six months he was volunteering at OLE Nepal. Named XOvis in short for XO visualization, the tool extracts data from the E-Pustakalaya servers in schools, and presents them in interactive and user-friendly graphical format. The tool gives implementers a clear and detailed picture of the nature and the extent of the use of E-Pustakalaya and other learning activities available in XO laptops in schools. This software tracks the usage frequency, usage by months and years, and allows comparison across different schools. The software is being used by other OLPC deployments around the world as well.

Striving for Low Power E-Pustakalaya Lab

OLE Nepal’s technical team continue to search for and test various innovative solutions, and adapt them to Nepal’s school environment. As there has been a widespread effort to put computers in schools across the country, the team has been focusing on low-cost low-power devices so that schools can have more devices for the same investment, while enabling them to operate even during the long power outages. We have tested various System on Chip (SoC) devices, and we have come up with a solution with ten SoC devices and one E-Pustakalaya server that can operate on a 100 amp-hour battery (that can be charged with solar energy). We have even loaded and run the entire offline E-Pustakalaya on a 10-Watt SoC device. For the purpose of school education, these SoC devices are much better alternative to the big, energy-inefficient PC computers with high-power processors.

OLE Nepal at Events

  • Capacity Building Training

    The Embassy of Finland, Kathmandu organized a two-day Annual Capacity Building Training for its Fund for Local Cooperation (FLC) partner organizations on June 2 and 3. Conducted by chartered accountants, Raj MS & Co., the training covered the topics such as internal control mechanism, audit report findings, communications, understanding donors, proposal writing, and fundraising. OLE Nepal’s Program Manager, Mr. Subir Pradhanang, and Accounts and Administration Officer, Ms. Rabita Dangol, attended the training.

  • E-Learning Presentation at Kathmandu University

    Kathmandu university
    Kathmandu University (KU) E-Learning Center organized a two-day training on E-Learning through Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment (Moodle) at KU, Dhulikhel on June 19 and 20. The participants were faculty members from different schools and departments of KU.

    OLE Nepal was invited to present on the status, benefits, and potentials of E-Learning, and to share our experiences with the participants. Sarina Piya and Subir Pradhanang spoke on how technology is changing the educational landscape and shifting the learning paradigm, and gave demonstrations of various educational resources including the E-Paath and E-Pustakalaya that are leading the transformation in education.

  • 10th National ICT Conference 2014

    Information Technology Society Nepal (ITS Nepal) had organized the 10th National ICT Conference on May 31 under the theme “ICT in Education” and OLE Nepal was invited to give a presentation on E-Pustakalaya and its digital content. Outreach Manager Sarina Piya and Network Engineer Basanta Shrestha gave a presentation and demonstration of the E-Pustakalaya contents. Later in the day, OLE Nepal’s Executive Director Mr. Rabi Karmacharya joined Dr. Subarna Shakya from the Institute of Engineering, Mr. Rajendra Banepali from UN Information Center, and Mr. Min Bahadur Shahi from the Rato Bangala Foundation on a panel discussion about use of ICT in education. Mr. Karmacharya underlined the uphill task of improving education standards in Nepal, and the role that ICT can play in addressing some of the issues.

  • National Policy Conference on ICT in Eduation

    OLE Nepal’s Executive Director Rabi Karmacharya joined in a panel discussion with Mr. Kamal Pokhrel (Director - Dept of Education), Dr. Mahabir Pun (Founder- Nepal Wireless Networking Project), Ms Beth Watson (Education Director-Public Sector, Microsoft Asia Pacific Region), Mr Ang Tshering Sherpa (Japan International Cooperation Agency) at the National Policy Conference held on June 19.

    National Policy Conference
    The discussion on converting the ICT in education master plan into action was moderated by Dr. Lava Deo Awasthi (Director General, Dept of Education). Speaking at the program, Mr. Karmacharya urged policy makers and planners to make the effort to learn from home-grown ICT initiatives, and not simply follow the long-standing habit of looking to other countries for innovative ideas and approaches. He also cautioned decision makers not to be carried away by seemingly attractive technology platforms and devices, and instead focus on our context and our goals of improving the quality of education.

New Members of OLE Team

Kumudini Shrestha - English Content

Kumudini has joined the OLE Nepal content team to help design and develop interactive learning activities for grades seven and eight English subject. She has been both an elementary teacher as well as taught classes at a graduate program at Tribhuvan University. She has also volunteered at a public girls school and a residential school for disadvantaged children, where she tried to inculcate the love of reading especially to children of ages 9-11. Kumudini holds M.A. and B.A. degrees in English Literature.


Sumitra Maharjan and Nikesh Maharjan, both final year students at Thames International College, completed a two-month internship program at OLE Nepal in May-June.
Sumitra was involved in converting math activities to HTML platform, while Nikesh worked on improving the audio-book interface on the E-Pustakalaya.

OLE NEPAL is Hiring!!!

Visit www.olenepal.org/get-involved/ to learn more

Upcoming Events

We have a number of interesting activities lined up for the months of July to September. With the completion of in-school training in the 10 program schools of Bajhang, we are looking forward to selecting 13 more schools for the second phase of the project with the support of UN World Food Program (WFP).

The Bajhang volunteer program, with the support of Maitri Trust, will continue to support the current 10 schools, and will last till September. Subarna Tandukar, a graduate level student of sociology, and Rahul Shrestha, a final year student of management, will be spending two months supporting schools in Bajhang. They will undergo three weeks of training at the OLE Nepal office before heading out to the schools at the end of July.

The content development activity, under the support of the Embassy of Finland, is progressing and should be ready by the end of August. We are planning to update the newly-developed contents in all the 15 FLC (Fund for Local Cooperation) program schools of Baglung, Banke, and Solukhumbu districts. This will be followed by training teachers of grade 7 for science and math subjects in September. It will also include monitoring and support visit to the 5 program schools in Solukhumbu. A support visit to the 8 schools of Kavre where E-Pustakalaya was installed earlier this year is also due during this period.

A Day in the Life of OLE Nepal’s Staff

Our program manager extraordinaire - Mr. Basanta Shrestha

Hiking to reach a school in Bajura
Comes across two kids bathing on the way
Stops to help them
Continues on to the school to install E-Pustakalaya and conduct orientation